ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
ZDENĚK NEJEDLÝ IN THE INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CZECH SCIENCE BETWEEN 1945—1952
(Zdeněk Nejedlý v institucionálním vývoji české vědy v letech 1945—1952)
Nejedlý (1878--1962), historian, musicologist and politician, in his functions of the chairman of the Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts (1945--1952), of the minister of education (1945--1946 and 1948--1953), and also his influence upon the work of the Governmental Committee for the Establishing of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in 1952. Nejedlý did not manage to use opportunities given him by the connection with the aforementioned important offices. Due to his huge political engagement he did not concentrate on the field of science and thinking about a new academy he was one-sidedly focused on problems and claims of social sciences and humanities. A complex of institutes for exact and natural sciences was built up because of activities connected with ruling politics, standing as opposite to the Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts--these institutes becoming a base for the new academy that was to be built according to the Soviet pattern. However, in the end Nejedlý significantly influenced shaping of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. Thanks to him the one-sided orientation of the Czech (or Czechoslovak at that time) science as a whole to natural science, hammering out after 1945, was weakened, and continuation was put through its institutional development. Nejedlý was seen as the most important representative of the Czechoslovak science for his deserts in the reinforcement of Communist regime and so he was appointed a life-time president of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences.
HUNDRED YEARS OF TEACHING PHOTOGRAPHY AT CZECH UNIVERSITIES
(100 let výuky fotografie na českých vysokých školách)
The systematic lectures of photography were opened at the Czech Technical University in Prague 100 years ago, in 1900. As its first professor Karel Kruis was named and after his death in 1917 his lectures were taken over by prof. Ing. Dr. Jaroslav Milbauer. Main attention was devoted to chemical problems of photography. At Charles University in Prague, the lectures on photography began in 1908. Prof. Dr. Viktorin Vojtech dealt mostly with applications of photography in science and technology. In 1912, lectures of photography were started at the Technical University in Brno where prof. Dr. Vladimír Novák was concerned with problems of sensitometry and its instrumentation. This filed of research was expanded by his pupil prof. Ing. Dr. Jaroslav Bouček at the Film Academy after World War II and during his collaboration with the Research Institute in Sound, Pictorial and Radio Techniques (Výzkumný ústav zvukové, obrazové a rozhlasové techniky).
ONCE MORE LUDVÍK OČENÁŠEK
(Jeste jednou Ludvík Očenášek)
The author discusses conclusions and hypotheses written in the article of Lukáš Nachtman "Ludvík Očenášek, český technik a vynálezce" [L. O., Czech engineer and inventor], published in the journal DVT two years ago (No. 3, 1998, pp. 145--155). His interest is focused mostly on Očenášek’s rotary piston engine and questions if it was destined for using in airplane and if it was copied in French engine Gnôme Omega in 1909. Other rather detailed data about Očenášek activities till 1912 are added.
© M. Barvík 2004