Abstracts of papers - DVT 02:3—4
Journal and Web of Society for History of Sciences and Technology, Prague

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Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 3—4, Vol. XXXV (2002)

/02:3—4:129/

Eugen STROUHAL

DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT IN ANCIENT EGYPT

(Nemoci a jejich léčení ve starém Egyptě)

After survey of different sources (medical papyri, iconography, mummies and skeletal remains) categories of proved diseases with their examples are discussed under headings of parasitic, infectious, environmental, deforming, internal, osseous and dental diseases. Part on treatment offers an overview of used methods and examples of determined medical plants and drugs of animal and mineral origin. The article is closed by a short insight into excellent achievements in surgery.


/02:3—4:151/

Benjamin PAGE

IMPRESSIONS: THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION AND EARLY CZECHOSLOVAKIA

(Imprese: Rockefellerova nadace a rané Československo. Počátky)

This is the first part of an article on the work and experience of the Rockefeller Foundation’s International Health Board in the Minmistry of Health of interwar Czechoslovakia. This part oif the article discusses briefly the history of the Rockefeller Foundation and the rteasions for its vast efforts to create an international network of elite institutes, schools and programs of medicine and public health, staffed by personnel of similar values and commitments thanks to having been trained at the schools supported by the Foundation in the US. On this foundation, it then considers how the Foundation came to be interested in work in Czechoslovakia, the first European country to become part of its global project.

The second part of the article will explore the actual work and experience of the Rockefeller Foundation in interwar Czechoslovakia, the key personalities involeed, their impressions of the country and its its bureaucratic and other problems, and the reasons for the rather rapid dissolution of the early enthusiasm which Foundation personnel had felt for Czechoslovakia and the prospect of work there.


/02:3—4:177/

Hana MÁŠOVÁ

PROSTĚJOV AND ZLÍN—THE CASE OF TWO MORAVIAN HOSPITALS AND THEIR DIRECTORS IN THE INTERWAR CZECHOSLOVAKIA

(Prostějov a Zlín - dvě moravské nemocnice v první ČSR)

The author of the article compares two hospitals as different models of approaches to the potentialities and tasks of hospitals in modern times. Hospital reforms were discussed among experts, owners and administrators of hospitals, even on the supreme ministerial level, in the Interwar Czechoslovak Republic. The Bill reforming hospital organization and the health care system in the whole Republic was prepared for adoption in the Czechoslovak Parliament by the end 1930s. The first infirmary described here— the hospital in Prostějov—has been chosen as one of the traditional but progressive municipal institutes, and the second onethe Bata´s hospital in Zlin (a private factory hospital)—as an extraordinary hospital where many novelties and new managerial methods were introduced. The directors of the hospitals, Drs Albert and Mathon, both surgeons, were two important representatives not only of the medical branch, but also of hospital management—a new science at that time. They were active not only in efforts to build up their hospitals, but beyond that to affect the social life and welfare of their towns and region as well. Mathon was busy especially in the area of history, fine arts and local autonomy. Albert, aspiring to set up an efficient medicine and a health service on modern principles, was a practical agent in contact with Czech and foreign scientific associations. Their notions about the tasks and targets of the Hospital Bill were congruent in many aspects and tenets, but differed from each other in details. Jaroslav Mathon (*8. 3. 1867 Brno, †25. 5. 1953 Kroměříž) in Prostějov defended the ways to supply sufficient power and resources to the medical directors of the hospitals, and believed in natural development and the need to account for the particularities and tradition of every county. Bohuslav Albert (*16. 2. 1890 Kostelec nad Orlicí, okr. Rychnov nad Kněžnou, †9. 8. 1952 Lázně Jeseník) in Zlín advocated a radical approach, transforming hospitals to centers of social and health care in a planned, nation­wide, hierarchic net. The case­histories of both hospitals and the careers of their directors reveal some of their differences regarding interpretation of the Bill. Mathon and Albert expressed similar medical and humanitarian objectives and had a surplus of energy; both were socially able, competent mediators. As organizers, they were aware of the effects of management on the final achievements of medical care. They differed regarding their trust in the chances of control on a higher or lower regional level. To Mathon, Albert´s concept of the extramural health care connected with social care as a target of the hospital reform seemed (as a result of Mathon’s own previous attempts in the same direction) too idealistic, and the setting of a hierarchical network of institutions too etatistic. However, Albert continued his attempts to realize this ideal more or less successfully after the Second World War.


/02:3—4:211/

Rudolf BOHM — Jirí ŠINDLÁŘ

RENEWAL OF GENETICS IN VETERINARY MEDICINE IN BRNO

(Obnova genetiky ve veterinární medicíně v Brně)

The teaching of genetics in Brno between WWI and WWII was interrupted by the closing of Czech universities in Czechoslovakia in 1939 and the introduction of pseudoscientific Lysenkoism after 1948. The teachers of genetics in agriculture and veterinary medicine J. Kříženecký and F. Štencl discharged in early 1950s. The authors elucidate the renewed teaching of genetics for students of veterinary medicine and of the control of hereditary diseases in animal breeding in 1960s under the direction of B. Klimeš, K. Labík and L. Lojda. In this context professor F. B. Hutt from the Cornell University offered great help. In 1965 the Veterinary faculty awarded Hutt an honorary doctorate. After the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1968 contact with Hutt was interrupted.


/02:3—4:219/

Milan NESMĚRÁK

BAUWERKE DES TYPS DER MONOPTEROS IN DER BÖHMISCHEN ARCHITEKTUR DES 18. UND 19. JAHRHUNDERTS UND IHRE TYPOLOGISCHEN UND KONSTRUKTIONSVORBILDER

(Stavby typu monopteros v české architektuře 18. a 19. století)

Der Artikel bringt eine Originalstudie über die realen Inspirationsquellen für den Aufbau dieses Typs in Böhmen. Es werden hier an Beispielen aus der antiken Zeit die Prinzipien der Gestaltung. Rekonstruktionen des ursprünglichen Aussehens und Beschreibungen in der ursprünglichen Literatur, sowie auch die späteren Versionen dieses Bautyps in der Zeitspanne nach dem Untergang der Antike präsentiert.

Einleitend wird auf Grund einer Analyse der Konstruktion und technologischen Ausfü-hrung des Lysikratos­Denkmals in Athen die Möglichkeit der Existenz dieses Bautyps des Monopteros im antiken Griechenland bereits in der Anfangszeit des Hellenismus erwogen. Anschliessend werden dann weitere Bauwerke dieses Typs im antiken Griechenland und Rom angeführt.

Seit dem 18.Jahrhundert wurde dieser Bautyp erneut in beträchtlichem Ausmass bei den Gestaltungen der Parkanlagen, als sog. „Tempel“ oder „Glorietten“ benützt, ggf. als Architekturen über Heilquellen in den Parkanlagen der europäischen und böhmischen Kurstädte.

In dieser Zeit kam es zu einer Reihe von Änderungen im Bereich des architektonischen Konzeptes der Baugestaltung, ihrer Details und Konstruktionen sowie des Materials der Ausführung. Im unteren Teil der Bauten wurden neben dem stufenförmigen Sockel auch ein Podium mit einem vorgeschobenen Treppengelände nach dem Vorbild der Bauten des Tholostyps aus der antiken Zeit benützt und markante Veränderungen betrafen auch den Säulenumgang. Neu erschien auch der paarweise Einsatz der Säulen auf Postamenten, die teilweise Ausfüllung des Raumes zwischen den Säulen u.ähnl.

Veränderungen im Bereich der Komposition des ganzen unteren Teiles des Bauwerkes und ihr Abschluss mit einer Kuppel anstatt eines Kegeldaches erforderten auch Änderungen im Bereich der angewandten Konstruktionen und Materialien. Im Abschluss des Artikels sind auch die bedeutendsten Bauwerke dieses Typs auf unserem Gebiet detaillierter beschrieben – die sog. Gloriette in Krásný Dvur und das Monopteros über der Franzensquelle in Franzensbad. Zusätzlich werden weitere wesentliche typologische Bearbeitungen erwähnt, die den Typ des Monopteros und die Säulenhalle verbinden (z. B. die Ferdinand-Kolonade in Marienbad u. w.), die jedoch bereits eine vollkommen individuelle lokale Innovation des ursprünglichen Typs darstellen.

Der Artikel beschreibt nicht nur die Entwicklung des grundlegenden Bautyps von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart im Bereich der Typologie der Stil­und Kompositionsauffassung, aber auch die markanteren Änderungen auf dem Gebiet der Konstruktion, Technologie und des Materials.


© M. Barvík 2004