Abstracts of papers - DVT 07:3
Časopis a web Společnosti pro dějiny věd a techniky, Praha — Journal and Web of Society for History of Sciences and Technology, Prague
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ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS

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Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 3, Vol. XXXX (2007)

ESSAY

137 • The 20th Century and the Development of Technology and ScienceJaroslav Folta
(Dvacáté století a rozvoj techniky a vědy)

After quantitative analysis of different lists of facts from the whole development of science or its specialized parts as well as technology which shows that in period since 1850 was created merely one half of scientific and technological results, the article come to reflections on tasks of historians in preparing the overview of that epoch.
Paper follows important movement in new technologies in 19th C., and suggests their connections with deep results of preceded scientific research. Also first as well as second half of 20th C. were submitted similar speculation. It arrives to conclusion, that technology builds its specified epochs in which only limited number of basic new inventions gave the epoch its direction and essence.
The first decennium of 21st C. will be over and there is only few synthetic elaboration of the development of science and technology in the 20th C. as a whole. Reason is seen in still deeper specialization of researchers in science and technology, who are then not able to overcome their specialization and attempt themselves of more global historical synthesis. If it is difficult for technician or scientist, far less it attacks a general historian, whose education in science and technology is only of not too high level. And reasons are too in still more and more higher level of technical and scientific problems and of more and more complicated questions of subjects of research. Paper presents quantitative analysis of Current Bibliography of journal ISIS, which shows that about 20 % of quoted publication is devoted to 20th C. but there are not works covering the whole development of the subject.
Another problem comes from the difference between great and small countries. If the small country and its industry and research could be overviewed like great plant, enterprises of great and very developed countries are more and more broadcast over the whole World. Therefore there is not only internal need of whole description of research and development in such country (it is possible to do better historical research with the development of one global broadcast enterprise), as well as, there could be difficulties with collecting material to research.
Paper touches also the education of secondary school students, where is necessary to introduce history of science and technology into curricula of history.

Key words
history of science and technology ● general questions ● 20th century ● importance of the 20th century in history of science and technology ● tasks for historians

PAPERS

151 • Intellectuals Saved from Nazism by Turkey: The Czechoslovak ConnectionArnold Reisman
(Intelektuálové zachránění Tureckem před nacismem a jejich kontakty s Československem)
In english

In 1933, Turkey reformed its higher education using invitees fleeing the Nazis and for whom America was out of reach because of restrictive immigration laws and widespread anti-Semitic hiring bias at its universities. This visionary act on the part of Turkey’s government had the collateral benefit of placing in escrow lives, knowledge, and creativity of many who went on to significantly change established paradigms of several disciplines in the English speaking world’s sciences and professions.
This paper discusses the Czech Connection of four eminent scientists saved by Turkey. They are biochemist Felix Haurowitz, astronomer E. Finlay Freundlich, Archeologist/ Assyriologist Benno Landsberger, and applied mathematician Richard von Mises.
Although none has achieved Nobel laureate status, over their professional careers each of these has collaborated with and or corresponded with a number of Nobelists. Among these are Albert Einstein, Linus Pauling, and Max von Laue. Except for Freundlich who ended up at the Unversity of St Andrews in Scotland, the other three came to the United States. Von Mises went to Harvard in 1938, Landsberger went to the University of Chicago in 1945 and Haurowitz to Indiana University in 1949.
The paper also discusses the fact that three of these intellectuals and many others requested and were given Czech passports by the Beneš government-in-exile after having been stripped of their German citizenship by the Nazis while in Turkey and thereby rendering them stateless or in Turkish Haymatloz.

V roce 1933 Turecko reformovalo své vysoké školství. Využilo k tomu ty, kteří prchali před nacismem a pro něž byly Spojené státy americké mimo dosah kvůli restriktivním imigračním zákonům a široce rozšířenému antisemitismu na jejich univerzitách. Jasnovidná akce ze strany turecké vlády měla vedlejší příznivý účinek v tom, že se jí podařilo takto zachránit životy, znalosti a kreativitu mnoha, kteří posléze významným způsobem přispěli ke změnám existujících paradigmat několika disciplín v anglicky mluvícím světě vědy a náboženství.
Příspěvek se zabývá českými vazbami čtyř vynikajících vědců zachráněných Tureckem. Jsou to biochemik Felix Haurowitz, astronom E. Finlay Freundlich, archeolog a asyrolog Benno Landsverger a matematik Richard von Mises. Ačkoli nikdo z nich Nobelovu cenu nezískal, během svých profesních kariér každý z nich spolupracoval a dopisoval si s řadou laureátů Nobelovy ceny – například s Albertem Einsteinem, Linusem Paulingem a Maxem von Laue. Kromě Freundlicha, který se uchytil na Univerzitě v St. Andrew ve Skotsku, se tři ostatní usadili ve Spojených státech: von Mises v roce 1938 v Harvardu, Landsberger v roce 1945 na univerzitě v Chicagu a Haurowitz na Indiana University v roce 1949.
Příspěvek se rovněž zabývá skutečností, že tři z těchto vědců a mnoho dalších požádali Benešovu exilovou vládu o české pasy a také je dostali poté, co byli zbaveni svého německého občanství nacisty, zatímco byli v Turecku, a tím se z nich stali lidé bez státní příslušnosti, nebo v turečtině „Haymatloz“. Všichni se totiž během předchozích let do kontaktu s meziválečným Československem dostali.

Key words
Turkey • Czechoslovakia • educational policy • history of science • Nazi persecution; Nazism • migration • exile • Beneš government-in-exile.


175 • Electrochemical Power Sources in Czechoslovakia till 1989. Chapter from the History of Czech Electrochemistry. Part I.Jiří Jindra
(Elektrochemické zdroje proudu v Československu do roku 1989. Kapitola z dějin české elektrochemie Část I: Primární články, lithiové články, vodivé polymery a kompozitní elektrody)

Article deals with research and production of primary cells, lithium cells, conductive polymers, and composite electrodes in the 2nd half of the 20th century. In many cases research was conducted in close cooperation of research institutions with industrial laboratories, or even in the frames of international collaboration (Bulgaria, Italy, Sweden).


Key words
electrochemical sources of current ● primary cells ● lithium cells ● conductive polymers ● composite electrodes


© M. Barvík 2006