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Last updated: 2009-06-26


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Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 4, Vol. XLI (2008)


DVT 084, 233
Unsuccessful Candidates for the Nobel Prizes for Physics Until 1956
Neúspěšní kandidáti na Nobelovy ceny za fyziku do roku 1956
Jiří Jindra

The paper deals with time span within which candidates for the Nobel Prize in Physics were awarded these prizes. There were seven nominees who gained the prize the year in which they were nominated, eleven within two years, and five within five years.

The situation of the most unsuccessful candidates is described in detail. Although they did get most of nominations, they never became Nobel prizewinners. Among them there were personalities like A. Sommerfeld, F. Paschen, R. W. Wood and A. Righi. The case of L. Meitner is special; she was nominated more than forty times for Nobel prizes in both physics and chemistry.

Key words:
Nobel prizes for physics • 1901–1956 • nominations for Nobel prizes • successfulness and/or unsuccessfulness

DVT 084, 255
New Views on the Antikythera Mechanism
Nové pohledy na mechanismus z Antikythéry
Petr Hadrava – Alena Hadravová

The history of the ancient geared mechanism found in a Roman shipwreck near the Antikythera island is reviewed. A particular attention is devoted to the notices in the contemporary literature (Cicero, Vitruvius), which yield an evidence of a long tradition in development of similar analog computers in ancient Greece for calculation of the positions of celestial bodies. The results of The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project based on X-ray computer tomography are summarized and the functions of the proposed reconstruction of the device are explained.

Key words:
analog ancient computer • turn of the 2nd to 1st millennium B. C. • Greece, Antikythera island

DVT 084, 267
Historical survey of the Czech participation in the international entomological congresses in the 20th century
Historický přehled české účasti na mezinárodních entomologických kongresech ve 20. století
Zdeněk Koleška

The survey summarizes basic data on entomological congresses from the very beginning, on their importance, changes of orientation in entomology, and timely research. Twenty congresses of entomologists from many countries were organized by the Standing Committee of the IEC. Czech entomologists Prof. František Klapálek and Prof. Vladimír Landa were elected as honorary members of the Committee. Delegates from Czechoslovakia attended most of the congresses, some of them with specialist reports. On the other hand these delegates carried forward pieces of knowledge and tasks from the congresses into their own research at their research institutions.

Key words:
entomology • international congresses • 20th century • Czechoslovak (Czech) participation

© M. Barvík 2008