DVT 134, 217
Arabské intelektuální inspirace latinského Západu kolem roku 1000
Arabic intellectual inspiration of the Latin west around year 1000.
This paper deals with three Arabic intellectual inspirations of the Latin Christian West around the year 1000 – a mathematical table called ‘abacus’, a decimal positional system, and an astrolabe, the famous astronomical and astrological tool. The aim of this paper is to modify the traditional view of knowledge transfer from Arabic world into Latin world (translatio studiorum), particularly with regard to the initial period and motives of this transfer.
Keywords: abacus · astrolabe · Catalonia · 10th century · Gerbert of Aurillac
Summary: This paper presents an attempt to modify the usual explanatory scheme of the transmission of knowledge ( translatio studiorum) from the Arabic world into the Latin world, especially in two respects – the period of the transmission and the primordial subject of the transmission. This paper also briefly deals with the historical context of the “knowledge transfer” into the Muslim civilization and in more detail with the translatio studiorum from the Muslim world to Latin Christian civilization. Further, this paper describes the situation on the Iberian Peninsula in the 10th century, particularly with regard to the first well-documented reports of Greco-Arab influence on European medieval culture, including the importance of Maslama al-Majriti and his school in this process. Finally, this paper presents three important Arab intellectual inspirations for the Latin world before the year 1000 A.D., that is the abacus, the positional decimal system, and the astrolabe.
DVT 134, 238
Plinius Nového světa: Francisco Hernández a první moderní vědecká expedice
Pliny of the New World: Francisco Hernández and the first modern
The central theme of this study is the expedition of Spanish doctor and philosopher Francisco Hernández (1517–1587). The paper concentrates on the specific features of this expedition and natural history (namely empiricism, utilitarism, cooperation etc.).
Keywords: New World · natural history · Pliny · first scientific expedition · experience · scientific communication and cooperation
Summary: The paper concentrates on the specific features of this expedition, or more precisely of his natural history Historia natural de la Nueva España , which are interpreted as modern and peculiar. Hernandez’s method of work is modern in that it was grounded in experience and detached from speculation, fabulation, or a religious dimension in emphasizing empirical, verifiable, and useful knowledge. This modern method is presented in contrast to the methods of contemporary European botanists (Alciati, Gessner, etc.). The study also shows that Hernandez’s expedition was exceptional (in its form, extent, and outputs) in his time, but not because Hernández himself was so modern and progressive. The power interests of Spanish Empire are presented and analyzed as the causes of Hernández’s natural history specific character.
DVT 134, 255
Entomologická historie Prahy a vědeckého výzkumu pražské entomofauny
Entomological history of Prague and research of the Prague entomofauna.
2 nd part.
Survey of the natural differentiation of the Prague region. Active reserach of the Prague entomofauna from the beginning of the 20th century. Origin of the Czech Entomological Society. Active and modern work of its members in the research of entomofauna. Results of processed and published faunal researches of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and ants (Formicidae).
Key words: Czech Entomological Society (1904) · Prof. František Klapálek · main Prague entomologists habitat „Závist“ · Czech Entomological Society Journal
Summary: The second part of the study provides an overview of the natural structure and wealth of the Prague region and refers to the initiation of active research into Prague entomofauna in the early 20 th century. An important event was the foundation of the Czech Entomological Society in 1904, headed by its first president, Professor František Klapálek. Thanks to the expert scientific activities of the new association, Czech entomology started to expand, and its members began modern and intensive scientific research on the entomofauna of Bohemia and the Prague region. Emanuel Lokaj set the direction of research in the field of coleopterology. He was joined by other researchers exploring all major locations in Prague. There was also an interest in research on butterflies (Lepidoptera), Hymenoptera and Diptera (Hymeneoptera, Diptera), and ants (Formicidae). Research and special collections of representatives of the orders Trichoptera and Plecoptera (caddis and stonefly) were performed by F. Klapalek at Prague locations. In the years 1900–1918, a range of insect calamities caused by harmful species of butterflies was also observed in Prague. The study includes the results of Prague faunology surveys of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera, which were compiled and published in the Czech Entomological Society Journal. Prague entomological studies monitored activity until 1918.