DVT 141, 3
Commentariolus – ztracený a znovuobjevený milník na cestě k heliocentrismu
Commentariolus – a „lost and found“ milestone on the way to heliocentrism.
The little treatise by Copernicus, commonly known as Commentariolus, is mentioned for the first time in 1514. Handwritten anonymous copies were distributed to a few trusted friends of the author with the aim to earn their opinion about the proposed heliocentric planetary system. The original changed owners as gift and passed through the hands of Joachim Rheticus, Thaddaeus Hagecius, and Tycho Brahe. It was lost but three later copies survived in Vienna, Stockholm, and Aberdeen. The rich fates, content, and significance of this lost and forgotten treatise, the first exemplar of which was found in modern times in 1878, are briefly summarized.
Keywords: Commentariolus · Copernicus · Rheticus · Hagecius · heliocentrism
Summary: One of few handwritten copies of Copernicus’ Commentariolus was registered in the inventory of the library of Matthew of Miechów, professor at the University of Cracow, dated on 1 May 1514: “A manuscript of six leaves expounding the theory of an author who asserts that the Earth moves while the Sun stands still.” Copernicus’ original manuscript passed through the hands of Joachim Rheticus, Thaddaeus Hagecius in Prague, and Tycho Brahe. This manuscript was lost but three later copies of it emerged in Vienna, Stockholm and Aberdeen. Thanks to those surviving manuscripts, we know about the early heliocentric ideas of Copernicus.
DVT 141, 14
První mezinárodní farmaceutická výstava ve Vídni 1883 a rakousko-uherská farmacie
The First International Pharmaceutical Exhibition, held in Vienna 1883,
and Austro-Hungarian pharmacy.
The paper deals with the opportunity for Austro-Hungarian pharmacists to exhibit their discipline in the international dimension (though mainly German-speaking countries in the Central Europe – Germany and Austria) not only for the professional public but also to present in an organized way the state of pharmacy in Austria-Hungary. Attention is paid to pharmaceutical societies, important personalities, and companies.
Keywords: history of pharmacy ● exhibitions ● pharmaceutical societies ● pharmaceutical technology ● pharmaceutical companies
Summary: The paper covers the preparation for and realization of the First International Pharmaceutical Exhibition. On the basis of information about its organizers, the level of pharmacy in Austria-Hungary is captured. The Austrian Pharmaceutical Society and the General Austrian Society of Pharmacists were the most important associations, which established many individual specialized departments. Via a description of exhibits, an idea of contemporary drug production, technological innovations, and above all implementation of compressed dosage forms (tablets, suppositories) and cachets is given. Special attention is aimed at the history of pharmacy, which had a separate section at the exhibition. The profit from the exhibition was donated to the supportive society of pharmacists, named Hygiea. The exhibition was the first of three events of this kind held before World War I. This tradition never continued later.
DVT 141, 36
Entomologická historie Prahy a vědeckého výzkumu pražské entomofauny
Entomological history of Prague and research of the Prague entomofauna.
The third part.
The third part of the study follows Prague entomological activities in the independent Czechoslovak Republic from 1919 to the end of 1980s. It covers the work of Czechoslovak Entomological Society members until 1938, and their research, collector and publication activities. The article further discusses the work of entomologists during the German occupation. It also presents research on entomofauna after World War II, focusing on team work in the research of Prague localities, and the origin of new entomological workplaces.
Key words: J. Obenberger ● L. Heyrovský ● Entomological department of the National Museum and research of its workers in Prague ● team research of localities in parts of Prague – Troja, Krč, Sv. Prokop, Stromovka ● the CSAS Institute of Entomology
Summary: Czechoslovak Entomological Society began in the free state actively work and its members launched a successful research, collecting and publishing. Faunistics of insects is moving in two directions at that time. It began active exploration of the sites in Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia (Podkarpatská Rus), and to a greater extent, the collector’s foreign travel and research expeditions take place. Prague entomofauna research has not been done on such a large scale as in previous seasons, but comprehensive research has been successfully done on the Prague rock, steppe and forest sites with a focus on relict insect species. Research on the families of Staphylinidae, Carabidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) was conducted. Attention began to be devoted to the exploration and study of small butterflies (Microlepidoptera) around Prague and presence of insect order Diptera and Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera, Diptera) was intensively monitored. Interest in research in Prague entomofauna increased again during occupation between 1939–1945 when it was not possible to make research abroad. After the Second World War, the activities of the Czechoslovak Entomological Society of Prague and other entomological institutions were actively developed, and scientists and amateur entomologists conducted numerous team researches of Prague entomofauna during the second half of the 20 th century.