DVT 152, 67
Idea vědecké filosofie u Franze Brentana
The idea of scientific philosophy in Franz Brentano.
The paper analyses Franz Brentano’s public lectures and his psychological works to identify key concepts of his idea of scientific philosophy. The result is an appealing yet difficult ideal of science, assembling characteristics that many other philosophical schools assume to be contradictory. Its wideness seems to be the main reason Brentano could inspire or influence a diversity of later approaches to scientific philosophy.
Key words: Franz Brentano ● methods of philosophy ● scientific philosophy ● philosophy of science ● history of psychology
Summary: The paper offers an analysis of Brentano’s public lectures and the methodological sections in his psychological works for the key concepts of his idea of scientific philosophy. It identifies a set of characteristics that form a demanding ideal of what Brentano considered “true scientific philosophy”. This philosophy was driven by theoretical interest but in the same time it was empirical as opposed to speculative, open (not setting itself any artificial epistemic limits), inseparable from overall scientific progress, and non-reductive. It looked through methodical observation for distinct causal explanations in different sets of phenomena. Brentano attempted to transform the emerging science of psychology into such an ideal when, using the distinction between inner observation and inner perception, he tried to establish a discipline of pure descriptive psychology. His attempt did not have a lasting effect on psychology but did influence contemporary philosophy of mind. Nevertheless, Brentano’s ideal also inspired different approaches to scientific philosophy.
DVT 152, 85
Proměna českého pivovarnictví v 19. století v obraze vývoje techniky, vědy a technologie a aplikování jeho výsledků v praxi
Transformation of the Czech brewery as mirrored in the development of technology, science, and technique and the application of its results in practice in the 19th century.
During the 19th century, the Czech brewing industry witnessed a profound transformation from a craft into a real industrial field. Together with the economic, social, and political development of the industry, the technique, research, and the use of inventions changed significantly. Based on several real examples of the phases of brewing’s technological development, the paper describes how changes happened, how new inventions and discoveries found their way into breweries, how they were accepted, and what prospects they presented for the future.
Key words: brewing industry ● technique and science ● brewing technology ● 2nd half of 19th century ● brewers
Summary: The paper describes in several chapters the development of brewing techniques and research in the second half of the 19th century and their use in the development of industrial brewing technology. The development of the whole brewing industry during this period is outlined. The most important transformation was from a craft into an industrial branch with the capacity to mass produce beer. The paper describes the actual development and design of new devices and inventions for each part of the brewing process (milling, mashing and boiling, fermentation and refrigeration). Subsequently, the paper shows how these changes were accepted by the chief brewers themselves. Their experience and attitude to work show how the results of technicians and researchers were applied in a field with a strong empirical background and how this process contributed to the development of brewing technology.
DVT 152, 102
Nově rozluštěný rukopis se zlomky antických pojednání o souhvězdích ze 6. století (Codex Climaci rescriptus)
Alena Hadravová – Petr Hadrava
Newly Deciphered Manuscript with Fragments of Ancient Works on Constellations from the 6th Century (Codex Climaci Rescriptus).
Recent discovery of fragments of Aratus’ and Eratosthenes’ texts on constellations, found in the palimpsest Codex Climaci Rescriptus, are briefly reported.
Key-words: Codex Climaci Rescriptus ● history of ancient Greek astronomy ● Aratus ● Eratosthenes
Summary: Parts of Aratus’ Phaenomena and Pseudo-Eratosthenes’ Catasterismi have been recently found by Green Scholars Initiative in palimpsest originating from St. Catherine monastery at Sinai. The later text also includes unusual sketches of constellations. This and other similar manuscripts deserve more attention and research in future.