Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 1, Vol. L (2017)

Úvodem do roku 2017

DVT 171, 3
Lorenz Oken a jeho encyklopedický časopis Isis
Tomáš Hermann – Jan Janko

Lorenz Oken and his encyclopedic journal Isis.
Introducing this year’s (50th) volume of DVT, the paper recalls the significance of Lorenz Oken (1779–1851) and bicentenary of the journal Isis that he founded a led in 1817–1848.

Keywords: Isis ● Lorenz Oken ● Naturphilosophy

Summary
Introducing this year’s (50th) volume of DVT, the paper recalls the significance of Lorenz Oken (1779–1851) and the journal Isis that he founded a led in 1817–1848. It characterises Oken’s competence and leading role in the framework of the German idealistic Naturphilosophie movement, and informs briefly of his professional activity. It is further devoted to the significance of the journal Isis for the historiography of science and also to its relation to the Czech scene, namely to J. E. Purkyně and to natural philosophy polyhistor, Count Georg August Buquoy.

Authors’ address:
Tomáš Hermann
Katedra filosofie a dějin přírodních věd PřF UK
Viničná 7, 128 44 Praha 2
Jan Janko
Suchý vršek 2138, 158 00 Praha 5

PAPERS

DVT 171, 9
Lékařské fakulty, nebo lékařské akademie?
Vysokoškolská výuka medicíny a lékařská věda v sovětském bloku ve 40. až 60. letech 20. století
Petr Svobodný

Medical Faculties, or Medical Academies? University training in medicine and medical science in the Soviet Block in the 1940s to 1960s.
In post-war Czechoslovakia, the organisation of public healthcare and healthcare’s institutions – or rather their reorganisations and reforms – were closely linked to problems and new challenges in organising the academic education in medicine and medical science. Reforms in this area, both those merely planned and those which were implemented, were seen as one of the basic starting points of healthcare reforms whose aim was to improve the healthcare and health of the population. Similar trends were at that time in evidence in other countries of the then forming Soviet Bloc.
In the early 1950s, medical faculties were in some countries of the Soviet Bloc (Poland, Hungary) removed from the structure of traditional universities and transformed into medical academies. These medical academies (in the sense of universities) were supposed to take over the existing functions of academic faculties of medicine and provide teaching, research (to some degree), and in close collaboration with clinical institutions curative medicine, but newly also preventive care. In other countries (Czechoslovakia, GDR), medical faculties remained part of both the traditional and newly established universities, though their transformation into medical academies had also been discussed.

Keywords: medical education and research ● traditions ● reforms ● Soviet Block ● Czechoslovakia

Summary
The contribution includes: 1. a brief description and subsequent comparison of the network of academic medical education in 1945–1960s in five countries of the Soviet Bloc (Czechoslovakia, GRD, Poland, and Hungary) and in the Soviet Union itself; 2. analysis of reasons why in some countries the transformation of traditional university faculties into academies was carried out while in others, it was not. These reasons include references to the strength of tradition, factual arguments which have to do with specific features of medical research, education, and practice in comparison with other faculties and universities, factual or ideologically based argumentation pointing to ‘Soviet models’, etc. This study is based on an analysis of programme statements, projects, and discussions (the Czechoslovak example), while the comparative part relies mostly on existing secondary literature (mainly Polish and German).

Author’s address:
Ústav dějin UK a Archiv UK
Ovocný trh 5
Praha 1, 116 36

DVT 171, 28
Nemoc, terapie a umírání v medicíně konce raného novověku: proměny konceptů mezi barokem a první polovinou 19. století
Václav Grubhoffer

Illness, therapy and dying in late early modern medicine: Changing concepts between baroque period and the first half of the 19th century.
Between the 17th and the 19th century medical science and practice underwent profound changes which led to the professionalization of medicine. Thanks to many significant medical discoveries body perception, diagnostic and therapeutic methods changed. The aim of this theoretical study is to describe some important transformations of early modern medical thinking which influenced significantly period concepts of illness, art of diagnostics, therapy and attitudes of medicine and its performers towards ill and dying person. The emphasis is placed on the second half of the 18th and on the beginning of the 19th century.

Keywords: history of medicine ● medical police ● death ● dying ● illness ● Enlightenment

Summary
The theoretical paper describes some significant medical concepts of illness, therapy and dying in Europe between the 17th and the first half of the 19th century with regard to their stagnation or transformations. At the same time it is also a summary of Czech and foreign historiography on the topic perceiving the history (historiography) of medicine as a very important and inspiring part of two currently modern historiographical approaches (Body History and Intellectual History). The key source was secondary literature in four languages (Czech, German, English, Italian) which also reflects varied research topics of these national historiographies of medicine. The author also worked with some primary sources, especially with selected treatises of medical police from the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century. The contribution is divided into three parts. The first one deals with concepts of illness, art of diagnostics and prevention. The second one focuses on period therapeutic strategies. The last part considers changing medical attitudes towards dying.

Author’s address:
Ústav věd o umění a kultuře FF JU
Branišovská 31a
370 05 České Budějovice
vendagrub@centrum.cz

DVT 171, 47
Smrt, pitva a pražská balzamace vévody Jindřicha Julia Brunšvického, tajného rady císaře Rudolfa II.
Bohdana Divišová

The death, the section and the embalming of the Duke Heinrich Julius of Braunschweig, the Secret Counselor of the Emperor Rudolf II.
The topic of the article is a translation and commentary of the Latin file describing the evolution of the health status of the Duke Heinrich Julius von Braunschweig--Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel in the last two weeks of his life. The author was Duke’s personal physician Johannes Steinmetz, who cared for him and subsequently also directed the posthumous section and embalming that took place in Prague. The aim of the article is to introduce to the interested public the text and its translation as well as an interpretation of the most important part of it – the description of the section and embalming.

Key words: Julius von Braunschweig ● illness ● death ● section ● embalming ● history of medicine

Summary
Although the death and obsequies of the early modern times become the subject matter of an increasing number of works, the procedure of usually conducted sections and embalming stands aside of the interest of contemporary historians. The medical report of the physician Johannes Steinmetz not only provides interesting information about medical interventions, the patient’s behavior, used drugs, participation of other doctors, but it is extremelly important because it contains the description of the exact process of the embalming, including the names and quantity of used drugs, herbs and other substances. That is why the report is unique not only for our history of medicine.

Author’s address:
Ústav dějiny lékařství a cizích jazyků 1. LF UK
U Nemocnice 4, 121 08 Praha 2



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