ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
COUNT KAREL CHOTEK AND FIRST CZECH RAILROADS
(Hrabě Karel Chotek a první české železnice)
The protrait of the Czech nobleman (born in 1783), the burgrave in the Bohemian Kingdom in the years 1826–1843, is focused on his relation to industry and business. Chotek was—also thanks to his education and journeys in Europe, mainly to the visit in France—concerned not only with establishing of parks, building of roads and bridges (he participated in the building of chain bridges, among them one in Prague, opened in the end of 1841), but also with railroads and railroad transport. In the beginning of 1840s he tried to support the construction of Plzen—Ceské Budejovice railway, where he took part also financially, and he was also engaged in the preparation of railroad connection of Bohemia and Moravia with the north, esspecially with Saxony. He was interested in railroads even after his forced resignation as the Czech burgrave. As the Czech governor he was similarly concerned with the steamnavigation on Czech rivers; he supported mainly the steamship company of John Andrews. Nevertheless, Chotek's business efforts were not very succesful. Very often he lost his invested money, and the enterprises that he aided mostly failed. However, his interest in railroads lasted till his death in 1868.
OUTLINE ON THE HISTORY OF PALEOPATHOLOGY IN THE WORLD AND CZECH CONTEXT
(Z historie paleopatologie ve světě a u nás)
In connection with the 12th European members meeting of the Paleopathology Association to be held in Prague and Pilsen in August 1998 in frame of celebrations of the 650th anniversary of Charles University, history of this newly defined discipline dealing with diseases of past human and animal population has been outlined. Work of several pioneers as A. B. Granville, J. N. Cermák, M. A. Ruffer, A. Hrdlicka, R. L. Moodie, and L. Pales has been mentioned. After World War II new medical laboratory methods were applied in analyses of paleopathological finds and first textbooks, meeting acts and collective monographs appeared. The turning point were activities of A. Cockburn who organized autopsies of Egyptian mummies for medical reasons and in February 1973 created a “Paleopathology Club”, later changed to “Association”, which became a body enabling written and direct oral communication between researchers coming from different disciplines and various countries. Specialized journals appeared from 1974, paleopathology became a teaching discipline, many general, regional or topical monographs and recently a copious international bibliography were published. In Czech Republic this discipline was pursued by anthropologists and medical doctors working in anthropology and from 1988—89 paleopathology began to be tought in the First Medical Faculty, Charles University Prague.
© M. Barvík 2004