ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS
TWO ADDRESSES—IN SCIENCE AND ARTS—DELIVERED AT THE FESTIVE OPENING OF THE CZECH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS IN 1891
(Vědecký a umělecký program při slavnostním zahájení činnosti ČAVU v roce 1891)
The Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts had to overcome rather difficult obstacles during its establishing within Austria-Hungary. It therefore aimed to give proofs of its vitality at the very moment of its opening where the protector of the Academy, archduke Karl Ludwig, and three ministers of Viennese government were present.
Two special lectures, philosophically coloured, were delivered—philosopher Josef Durdík spoke On the Unity of Culture, and surgeon Edaurd Albert, professor at the Viennese University, On Two Worlds, ie of the natural and social worlds. Both lectures were published in English translation in the volume Centenary of the Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts (see note 17). The article analyses them and concludes that the Czech science demonstrated in them both its modern and historical qualification to be a part of the world science.
A part of the festive opening was a performance of “Námluvy Pelopovy” (Courting of Pelops), first part of “Hippodamie”, a three-part play with musical accompaniment. This work, composed by Zdenek Fibich on Jaroslav Vrchlický’s text (both were members of the Czech Academy), is being considered an innovating act in music.
EUBIOTIC MOVEMENT IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA
(Eubiotické hnutí v Československu)
In the beginning of the 20th century, eubiotic movement in the Czech lands followed up with the eugenic movement. To its emphasizing of the human nature it added many maxims for the rational nurture, the way of life, restriction of luxury, etc. Founder of the eubiotic movement was Stanislav Růžička (1872—1946), Professor of hygiene at the Comenius University in Bratislava (from 1920), Prague pupil of A. Spina and G. Kabrhel. His main opus “Eubiotika” was published in the definitive form in Bratislava in 1926. Nevertheless, in spite of all effort to put principles of eubiotics across in the international scientific community, it stopped at the margin of modern endeavour after social medicine or social hygiene as it was too radical and visionary. Eubiotics belongs to the context of technocratic tendencies and social engineering, pushed there mainly by E. Paulová-Růžičková (sister of S. Růžička) with her enforcement of standardization and normalization both of products and even of human beings.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF WORKING SURFACE AND TECHNOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF GRINDING STONES
(Historický vývoj pracovního povrchu a technologické funkce mlecích kamenů)
Well-informed author deals with an important problems of miller’s trade—the choice and the most suitable adjustment of working stones for the best conditions of the corn grinding. The article informs of basic principles and gives many details about the proper stone adjustement also from the historical point of the view, and with the main regard to the European or Central-European territory.
© M. Barvík 2004