Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 3, Vol. XLVIII (2015)


DVT 153, 135
Valerian Magni (1586–1661) o vakuu
Tomáš Nejeschleba

Valeriano Magni (1586–1661) on the Void.
In July 1647 Valeriano Magni published in Warsaw a description of his experiment proving the existence of vacuum. His treatise called “Demonstratio ocularis, loci sine locato, corporis successive moti in vacuo, luminis nulli corpori inhaerentis” provoked a huge polemic, not only with the opponents of the void but also concerning the authorship of the experiment. The article deals with the circumstances of Magni’s experiment and the polemics with both scholars attacking Magni from the point of Aristotelianism and French scientists who admitted the existence of the void but accused Magni of plagiarism, for experiments with vacuums had been performed by Torricelli and Pascal first. The attention is paid to the philosophical background of Magni’s experiments.

Keywords: vakuum ● 17. century philosophy ● experimental science ● Valeriano Magni ● concept of light

Summary: Valeriano Magni’s approach to the problem of the void is in concordance with his philosophy, especially with the Platonic metaphysical background of his philosophical system. Firstly, the existence of the void in Magni’s view proves the epistemological priority of sight. That is why he does not speak about an experiment but calls it “Demonstratio ocularis” which means a demonstration that is accessible through the sight of the corporeal eye. Secondly, the demonstration of the void helps him to confirm the essentiality of light as a principle of reality in opposition to Aristotelianism. If light is visible at the place where a body is absent, light is not dependent on any material subject, thus the priority of light in the whole creation is demonstrated. Author’s address: Centrum pro práci s renesančními texty Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci

DVT 153, 151
Krátká zpráva Ottaviana Roveretiho (1556–1626), lékaře Rudolfa II.
Bohdana Divišová

Short message of Ottaviano Rovereti, doctor of Rudolf II.
The short message of Ottaviano Rovereti (1556–1626), doctor of Rudolf II. The theme of the article is a translation and commentary of the Latin file called “Relatio brevis.” It describes the evolution of the health status of the Emperor Rudolf II in the last few months of his life. The author was one of the emperor’s personal physicians, Ottaviano Rover (Roboreto), who subsequently directed the posthumous dissection of the emperor’s body. The document Relatio brevis has always been used by historians as a source of information but has often been misinterpreted. The aim of the article is a detailed interpretation of the translated text as well as an introduction to Ottaviano Rovereti’s life for the interested public. Though Rovereti held a very important place at the Prague imperial court, he remains almost unknown.

Key words: Rudolf II ● illness ● death ● Ottavio Rovereti ●history of medicine

Summary: After his studies and practice in Venice, the Trent physician Ottavio Rovereti (1556–1626) worked in Egyptian Cairo and Turkish Constantinople. After brief service at Carl d’Austria he won a prestigious post of a personal physician of Rudolf II. Rovereti remained in Rudolf’s service for at least eleven years and treated the emperor until his death. Then he performed an autopsy of the body and drew up an expert report which described the progress of Rudolf‘s last disease, the decease of the Emperor, and the above-mentioned autopsy. This „short report“ not only provides interesting information about medical interventions, the patient’s behavior, and the drugs that were used, but also about the participation of other major courtiers and their attitudes.

Back to Top ↑